German industrial centers of Europe eastward to strengthen the economic dominance

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Sheng Yuan in times of peace, Germany is still the most powerful country in Europe。So, the economy is the same in football。  From Manchester, England, to Milan, Italy, in central and western Europe zone once known as the "blue banana": here was the population of Europe, money and the most concentrated industry; and now, the industrial heart of Europe has been moving eastward, the same as its political center all came to Germany。  This is not only the fact that has occurred, but a trend is accelerating。Scientific director of the Vienna Institute for International Economics Landesman (MichaelLandesmann) said that the world has seen a manufacturing heartland to the European "Great Migration" and "big focus"。  "Blue Banana" to the "Golden Football" in 1989, French geographer Brunet (RogerBrunet) proposed the concept of "blue banana", referring to the United Kingdom after the Netherlands, Belgium, West Germany and Switzerland, to the economic development of Italy, Europe strong zone。Brunet worry, the economy is highly concentrated in Paris, France from the "blue banana" disappears on the map。He proposed this idea, urging the French government to invest in infrastructure to Paris – Lyon – Marseille axis, the development of about 1.European pillar of urbanization of 100 million people height。  But he did not think that, 25 years later, Europe's industrial layout has changed, "Blue Banana" has become a "golden football", focused on the core area to the south of Germany, extending to Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria and Romania country。  Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Romania have joined in the first decade of this century, the European Union has become the German industry "to extend the production line", they not only provide raw materials and components, but also increasingly engaged in automotive and some industrial machinery assembly processing。  In Europe, manufacturing employment in total employment share decline is widespread, most notably Britain, France and Belgium。Since the start of the industrial center eastward, changes in intra-EU trade share could explain some of the problems: According to the data released late last year, in mid-2004?Room 2013, Germany, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Romania, the so-called "Golden Football" area in the share of intra-EU trade increased by 5.3 percentage points, of which Germany increased by 2.2 percentage points。Over the same period, the Atlantic arc area, including the UK, France, Ireland, Spain and Portugal, including the total loss of the EU internal market 4.4 percentage points of share, which led to Spain and the UK, Italy also lost 1.7 points。  This triggered a debate within the EU。To some extent, in countries like the UK, industrial jobs have been replaced by employment growth of business services。Manufacturing employment in advanced economies more and more to high-tech development, and those who do not need high-tech part of it has been transferred to areas with lower labor costs。  In the knowledge economy, the position may become increasingly irrelevant, as the end of the century the coal mines and steel mills, as more and more industrial plants may shrink in Europe。However, Germany has the largest manufacturing base by maintaining, establishing its dominance in the European economy。  Dilemma while Germany is the economic dominance grew, the other side is vulnerable peripheral European countries。  Landesman said, more worrying is that, since the euro zone debt crisis forced Greece and Portugal to seek assistance, the southern edge of the European countries has been largely out of touch and industrial heart of。  "Edge and low-income areas and are not linked to cross-border production networks。This is not a simple reversible, not just the exchange rate issue。"Landesman said economists imprudent to assume that this trend will balance itself over time, but in fact the loss of manufacturing capacity in southern Europe needs more policy action to remedy, in order to establish the export capacity of the country's edge。  The latest Eurostat data show that Spain, Portugal and Ireland exports increased again, Irish economic growth rate last year reached 4.8% within the EU countries with the fastest economic growth last year, Spain grew by 2%, and finally begin to reverse the situation of mass unemployment。  US auto giant Ford and GM have increased investment in factories in Spain, aims to increase production capacity。In February, Ford announced that it has completed the expansion of the Spanish business investment of 2.3 billion euros, which is one of the largest investment in the history of the automotive industry in Spain。Due to increased production efficiency, even it has lost a lot of manufacturing jobs, or Spain increased its share of total value added of the European industry。  Investment in peripheral countries seemingly have the effect, but also to European policy makers that the problem of European institutional investors is also true: in the end should be a focus on the growing north-south economic divide, such as the reduction of Russian gas, etc. dependence on fossil fuels, is the heart of efforts to promote industrial research and development?  Although the industry has admitted trying to reverse the trend of centralization futile, the French government policy planning agencies or officials in France Strategie paper forthcoming in that the EU needs to be a strategic investment in the most depressed areas of target。They also proposed the establishment of a special fund for the euro area, loans and subsidies for the development of the poorest regions of the edges, small businesses, vocational training。"This is a political need, Europe will once again be equivalent to a positive, future-oriented (region), not just budgetary constraints (areas)。"They also warned that, failing that, to expand the industrial gap may lead to 'political explosion'。

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